Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which is affecting many people all over the world. Every day there is new case of a patient suffering from diabetes mellitus. The number of people suffering from this disease is on an increase every day. Therefore it becomes very necessary that we take a good look at what diabetes mellitus is all about, the symptoms and the cause and how we can possible prevent ourselves from contacting this disease and of course how to treat diabetes mellitus.
What is Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is chronic disease which affects human body’s ability to use the energy found in food. A person suffering from this disease has higher than normal blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus normally occurs when an individual body system was unable to produce enough insulin to rid the body of excess sugar.
There are three types of diabetes mellitus;
- Type 1 diabetes
- Type 2 diabetes
- Gestational diabetes
All the different types of diabetes mellitus posses one thing in common; they either arise either as a result of your body not producing enough insulin or not using enough insulin. Something, it can be combination of the two conditions. Usually, when you eat sugar and carbohydrates, your body breaks them down into special type of sugar needed by the body which is referred to as “Glucose”. The body draws the energy to power the body from glucose. However it needs insulin which is a hormone in your body in order to be able to convert the glucose in your body into energy to power up your system.
Diabetes mellitus arise as a result of lack or inadequate use of this insulin.
Research proves that diabetes mellitus affects almost 7% of the entire US population. It is estimated that if left unchecked by 2025 9% of American population will have one form of diabetes or another. Unfortunately, more than 6 million people living with this disease have no idea that they are suffering from diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus can as well be as result of genetics, environment and hereditary factors. Furthermore poor diet and obesity have some major roles to play in the development of type II diabetes.
Test for Diabetes
There are various tests available for detection of diabetes mellitus when it is suspected. The first and most use test for diabetes is fasting blood sugar. This is usually not more than 100 mg per deciliter. The number is kept between 100 and 120 mg per deciliter in pre-diabetes. When diabetes is confirmed, the number goes up above 120 milligrams per deciliter and in most cases higher than that.
Another popular test for diabetes mellitus is known as “3 hour glucose tolerance test” otherwise referred to as “3 hr GTT”. Three hour glucose tolerance test involves obtaining a fasting blood sugar and then providing the patients with a small bottle of highly sugared liquid to drink. The test is now carried out by testing for blood sugar at one hour, two hour and three hours when the patient has finished drinking the sugared liquid. If the doctor obtains any number above 200, then diabetes is diagnosed.
Checking the level of glycosylated hemoglobin is another popular test for diabetes mellitus. It usually involves taking the measurement of the amount of “sugar coated” blood cells in the body. Diabetes is assumed when the number exceeds the normal level which is 6.0.
Treatment for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
There are different treatments for different type of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes requires that the patient should be treated with insulin shots. This is because in type I diabetes mellitus, there is no insulin being produced by the pancreas and so there is urgent need to replace insulin in the body of the patients.
Type 2 diabetes is mostly treated with diet and medications that will be prescribed by the doctor. The type of medication being taking by the patients of type II diabetes are those one that can help his cells to respond better to the insulin produced by the pancreas.
Finally, diabetes mellitus can be a very frustrating disease. A patient of type I diabetes needs to be check his blood sugars constantly with blood glucose meter or glucometer. This check is carried out up to six times or more per day. A patient also needs to be taking insulin shots before each meal and sometimes during bedtime.